How to protect from solar radiation?

Answers:
Iam assuming you parsimonious genearal protection as a member of the standard human population.
There is no real angelic way to do this, yes you can us the products available but carry in mind these products contain alot of chalice based materials, and alot of oil what a combination you are frying your skin causing self induced damage, which is what they want, the best way, is savour the sun its a wonderful thing , we humans own caused grave wound to our atmosphere knowingly and it is continuing at an alarming speed, so confine the time you spend exposed to the sun heat and rays when on hols wear loose pale material clothing next to long sleeves etc. Enjoy,Mother Nature has be around alot longer than we have
use a giant SPF lotion (Sun Protection Factor).
There are 15 SPF, 30 SPF, 45 SPF.
Wrap yourself in tin foil.
Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheet...

Ultraviolet radiation: solar radiation and human health

Too much sun is uncertain

Sunlight, an essential prerequisite for life, may be extremely harmful to human health. Excessive exposure to the sun is specified to be associated with increased risks of miscellaneous skin cancers, cataract and other eye diseases, as well as accelerate skin ageing. It may also adversely affect people's ability to resist infectious diseases, and compromise the usefulness of vaccination programmes.

Sunlight is electromagnetic vivacity, which is propagated by electromagnetic waves. Healthwise, the most crucial parts of the sunlight electromagnetic spectrum are: ultraviolet radiation (UV), invisible to the eye; visible pale that allows us to see; and infrared radiation, which is our main source of boil but is also invisible. Excessive exposures to them poses particular risks to vigour.

Skin

Excessive UV exposure results in various chronic skin changes. These include diverse skin cancers of which melanoma is the most life-threatening; an increased number of moles (benign abnormality of melanocytes) and a range of other alterations arising from UV pull to keratinocytes and blood vessels. UV weaken to fibrous tissue is often described as "photoageing". Photoageing make people look elder because their skin loses its tightness and so sags or wrinkles.

* United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has estimated that more than 2 million nonmelanoma skin cancer and 200,000 malignant melanomas occur worldwide each year.
* In the event of a 10% fade in stratospheric ozone, an more 300,000 nonmelanoma and 4,500 melanoma skin cancers could be expected worldwide.
* Caucasians enjoy a higher risk of skin cancer because of the relative removal of skin pigmentation.
* The worldwide incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase, and is strongly related to frequency of recreational exposure to the sun and to history of sunburn.
* There is evidence that risk of melanoma is also related to intermittent exposure to UV, especially in childhood, and to exposure to sunlamps. However, the latter results are still preliminary.

Eye

UV exposure of the eye depends on frequent factors: ground forethought, the degree of brightness surrounded by the sky leading to activation of the squint reflex, the amount of atmospheric refection, and the use of eyewear.

* The acute effects of UV on the eye include the nouns of photokeratitis and photoconjunctivitis, which are like sunburn of the filmy skin-like tissue on the surface of the eyeball (cornea) and eyelids. While painful, they are reversible, confidently prevented by protective eyewear and have not be associated with any long-term hurt.
* Chronic effects include the possible development of pterygium (a white or cream coloured thick growth attached to the cornea), squamous cell cancer of the conjunctiva (scaly or plate-like malignancy) and cataracts.
* Some 20 million empire worldwide are currently blind as a result of cataracts. Of these, WHO estimates that as oodles as 20% may be due to UV exposure. Experts believe that each 1% sustained shrinking in stratospheric ozone would result contained by an increase of 0.5% in the number of cataract caused by solar UV.
* Direct viewing of the sun and other extremely bright objects can also seriously prejudice the very sensitive subdivision of the retina called the ashen spot, fovea or macula leutea. When cells of the fovea are destroyed, population can no longer view fine detail. This is a serious optical impairment making it impossible to read, sew, keep under surveillance TV, recognise faces, drive a vehicle or do any assignment which requires recognition of fine details.

Immune system

UV also appears to alter immune response by varying the activity and distribution of the cell responsible for triggering these responses. A number of studies indicate that UV exposures at environmental levels suppress immune responses surrounded by both rodents and humans. In rodents, this immune suppression results in enhanced susceptibility to infallible infectious diseases with skin involvement, and some systemic infections. Mechanisms associated beside UV-inducedimmunosuppression and host defencethat protect against infectious agents are similar in rodents and humans. It is as a result reasonable to assume that UV exposure may enhance the risk of infection and grow less the effectiveness of vaccines surrounded by humans. Additional research is necessary to substantiate this.

Thermal effects

Heating of tissues within the human body is the principal effect of infrared radiation. Excessive infrared radiation can result in roast strokes and other similar reactions in particular in elderly, infirm or impressively young individuals. At moderate level of exposure, the warmth experienced from man in the sun is relaxing and restorative.

Protective measures

Methods for personal protection from solar UV exposure include passable clothing, hats and the proper use of sunscreens to protect UV-exposed skin. For eye protection, UV absorbing sunglasses are needed.

Changes within behavior could minimize solar UV exposure. These include staying out of the sun, any indoors or in shaded areas, during the four-hour time around solar noon when UV level are at their highest. During summer, when daylight abiding time is in effect, solar noontime in most of Europe is at 14.00 hours (2 p.m.); within the UK and countries with a similar longitude, it is at 13.00 hours (1 p.m.).

Broad-spectrum sunscreens should be used when other mechanism of protection are not feasible, and after to reduce exposure a bit than lengthen the term of exposure. While topical applications of sunscreen are preferred for absorbing UVB, some preparations do not absorb the longer wavelength UVA effectively. Moreover, some preparations hold been found to contain ingredients that are mutagenic contained by sunlight. People using sunscreens should use those with a illustrious sun protection factor (SPF) and be aware that they are to protect from the sun and not for tanning purposes.

The reflective properties of the ground have an influence on UV exposure. Most raw surfaces such as grass, soil and water echo less than 10% of incident UV. However, fresh snow reflect nearly 80% while sand reflects 10-25%, significantly increasing UV exposure for skiers and bathers.

Global Solar UV Index

The Global Solar UV Index is an earth-shattering tool developed through the work of the WHO INTERSUN Project to assist local authorities in giving guidance on the scope of protection to be used on any given day. It provides an estimate of the maximum solar UV exposure at the Earth's surface. While the intensity of UV reaching the ground vary during the day, it reach a maximum, when there is no cloud cover, around mid-day. It is largely presented as a forecast of the maximum amount of skin-damaging UV expected to reach the Earth's surface at solar midday. The values of the Index range from zilch upward and the higher the Index number, the greater the chance of skin and eye damaging exposure to UV, and the smaller number time it takes for lay waste to to occur.

In the most extreme environments close to the equator, summer-time values can array up to 20. During a European summer the Index is generally not more than more or less 8, but can be higher, especially at seaside resorts. The following descriptions are usually associated with an assortment of values of the Index: Low UV exposure - 1 and 2; Moderate exposure - 3 and 4; High exposure - 5 and 6; Very high exposure - 7 and 8; Extreme exposure - greater than 9.

Recommendations on the description, estimate, and dissemination of the Global Solar UV Index were made surrounded by 1995 by WHO, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). National authorities throughout the world now use the Global Solar UV Index. These international organization recommended that:

* The Global Solar UV Index should be used as a vehicle to raise public awareness of the potential injure of excessive UV exposure and to alert people in the region of the need to adopt protective measures. This is especially major given the continuing decrease contained by stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in UV intensities that lead to increasingly severe UV-induced health effects;
* National government should be encouraged to use the Global Solar UV Index as part of a set of their public awareness and educational programmes;
* The word media should be provoked to report the Global Solar UV Index with their on a daily basis weather information, so that people start to accept this as something they have need of to know in complement to the news and weather.

Multiple UV indices

There have been a proliferation of indices within various countries, especially surrounded by Europe, that provide different measures of the levels of UV to which individuals are exposed from the sun. These UV indices may be promoted by some sun-screen or cosmetic manufacturers for commercial purposes or by local authorities unmindful that there have been ubiquitous acceptance of an international agreement on the use of the Global Solar UV Index. Using the standardized Global Solar UV Index at impossible to tell apart time as other UV indices may, however, lead to public confusion roughly speaking the important strength messages related to different Global Solar UV Index values. The purpose of the Global Solar UV Index is to provide uniform information to the public about each day UV exposure levels so that consistent messages can be provided on what protective measures are indispensable with a range of index values.

INTERSUN - the Global UV Project

The consequences of increased UV exposure were a crucial topic for discussion at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro contained by 1992. Agenda 21, adopted by the Conference, recommended as a concern of urgency that research be undertaken on the robustness effects of UV exposure and that appropriate measures be taken to mitigate them. Further to this recommendation the Global UV Project "INTERSUN" be launched contained by 1993.

The objectives of INTERSUN are to:

* Collaborate with specialist agencies to implement push button research related to human health and environmental effects from UV exposure;
* Develop reliable predictions of strength and environmental consequences of changes surrounded by UV exposure with stratospheric ozone depletion;
* Develop practical ways of monitoring money in UV-induced robustness effects over time in relation to environmental and behavioral conveyance; and
* Provide practical advice and information to national authorities on robustness and environmental effects of UV exposure; Means of efficiently disseminating this information, markedly through use of a Global Solar UV Index; Measures to protect the general public, workers and the environment against the adverse effects of increased UV exposure.
* INTERSUN is a collaborative project between WHO, UNEP, the International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC), the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and national authorities surrounded by the WHO Member States.

For more information contact:

WHO Media centre
Telephone: +41 22 791 2222
E-mail: mediainquiries(a)who.int
Don't wear black colored clothes, and use a sunblock that has the required strenght.
Wear a helmet and sunglasses.


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